Does Diabetes Complicate Bipolar Disorder?

People with bipolar disorder are three times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes typically occurs in adulthood and is associated with insulin resistance, as opposed to type 1, which is usually diagnosed in childhood and is associated with insulin deficiency.

In a talk at the 2015 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, researcher Tomas Hajek reported that in a large group of bipolar patients, 13% reported a history of type 2 diabetes, 21% were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes upon laboratory evaluation, and 32.2% had pre-diabetes without realizing it. Thus, about half of these patients with bipolar disorder were either affected by diabetes or at risk for it, many without knowing it.

The Bad News

Diabetes complicates the course of bipolar illness. Type 2 diabetes is associated with poorer response to treatment, atrophy of the hippocampus, cognitive impairment, and higher rates of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to full-blown dementia.

The main effect of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance. The body produces enough insulin, but insulin’s effects at its receptors are impaired. Diabetes also causes deficits in growth factors, increases in the enzyme GSK3B, decreases in mitochondria and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which protects neurons), and glucose toxicity.
Recent research by Hajek and colleagues shows that diabetes has several other detrimental effects on the brain in bipolar disorder.

On magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans, people with type 2 diabetes had lower levels of NAA, a marker of neuronal integrity, in the prefrontal cortex. This can indicate impaired functioning. People with type 2 diabetes also had lower levels of creatine, indicating impaired energy metabolism. In addition, hippocampal volume decreases with aging, and type 2 diabetes accelerated this age-related decline.

Continue reading “Does Diabetes Complicate Bipolar Disorder?”

Weight Loss Surgery Raises Some Pregnancy Risks

In The New York Times (Health), they reported that women who have undergone bariatric surgery are more likely to deliver premature babies than those with low birth weight, a large new study shows.

The research looked at roughly 15,000 births that took place in Sweden between 1992 & 2009, including about 2,500 women who had had weight loss surgery.  On average, the women delivered about five years after the surgery.

Continue reading “Weight Loss Surgery Raises Some Pregnancy Risks”

Health Tip: Managing Diabetes While Under Stress

Managing diabetes can be tough enough, but the challenge is even greater when you’re under stress.

The American Diabetes Association says possible impacts of stress on diabetes management include the risks of:

  • A sudden, dramatic rise in blood glucose levels.
  • Strong negative emotions.
  • Difficulty making decisions or thinking clearly.
  • Compulsive eating or making unhealthy food choices.
  • Significant strain on the heart and circulatory system.

Source for this article:  Yahoo Health


Is there a Link between Caffeine and Depression?


What is the relationship between caffeine and depression? Does caffeine make depression worse?

The exact relationship between caffeine and depression isn’t clear.  There’s no evidence that caffeine — a mild stimulant — causes depression.  However, some people are more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than are others. In such individuals, caffeine may worsen existing depression.  How or why this occurs isn’t clear.  But several theories exist.

·         Although caffeine initially gives you a “lift,” it may later have the opposite effect as the effects of the caffeine wear off.

·         Caffeine can make it more difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep.  A lack of sleep can worsen depression.

·         Caffeine appears to have some effect on blood sugar, especially in people with diabetes.  Fluctuations in blood sugar can be associated with mood changes.

Continue reading “Is there a Link between Caffeine and Depression?”

Considering Gastric Sleeve or Lap Band Surgery? ~~ Think Twice About Holiday “Splurges”

Holidays may be a traditional excuse to splurge, but excessive overindulging in anticipation of weight loss surgery can be counterproductive.

In PRNewswire, they reported that if you are seriously considering a gastric sleeve, lap band, or another weight loss procedures in early 2014, take caution about that one final round of caloric overindulgence during the holiday season. Binge eating can lead to dangerous blood sugar spikes, among other issues.

Sudden increases in blood sugar and blood pressure caused by excessive indulgence in rich holiday food, desserts, and alcoholic beverages can sometimes cause doctors to put the brakes on weight loss surgeries out of concerns about complications. Also, prior to weight loss surgery, patients are routinely put on very restricted low calorie diets, followed by a pre-surgery all-liquid diet. The switch, almost literally between “feast and famine,” can make it even more difficult for patients who are used to consuming a very large amount of food to switch to very small portions, and then no food at all just prior to surgery. Dr. Feiz (Board certified bariatric surgeon) strongly recommends that patients who are planning on weight loss surgery start scaling back their eating as soon as possible.


Mental Illness Tied to Higher Rates of Physical Problems

FRIDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) — Adults with mental illness are more likely to have certain types of chronic physical health problems than those without mental illness, according to a U.S. government report released this week.

The report said adults aged 18 and older who had any type of mental illness in the past year had higher rates of high blood pressure, asthma, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.

For instance, about 22 percent of adults with any type of mental illness in the past year had high blood pressure and nearly 16 percent had asthma. The rates in adults without mental illness were about 18 percent and 11 percent, respectively, the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) report said.

Continue reading “Mental Illness Tied to Higher Rates of Physical Problems”

Health Tip: Consider These Diabetes ‘Superfoods’

(HealthDay News) — April 12, 2012 –People with diabetes should look for foods that pack a powerful nutritional punch yet have a low glycemic index, experts say.

The American Diabetes Association suggests these optimal “superfoods”:

  • Any kind of bean, from kidney beans to pinto beans.
  • Vegetables that are dark green and leafy, including kale, collard greens and spinach.
  • Fiber-rich citrus fruits, including lemons, grapefruit and oranges.
  • Berries, sweet potatoes or tomatoes.
  • Salmon and other fish that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Nuts, whole grain foods and fat-free yogurt and milk.

Copyright © 2012HealthDay. All rights reserved

U.S. could bring more common drugs over the counter

(Reuters) – March 08, 2012 Prescription drugs to treat some of the most common chronic diseases, such as high cholesterol and diabetes, may become available over the counter under a plan being considered by U.S. regulators.

In what would be a major shift in policy if finalized, the Food and Drug Administration is seeking public comment until Friday on a way to make these medications more readily available. It will also have a meeting about the proposal at the end of March.

The goal is to ensure people take drugs as needed, while still understanding safety issues.

Experts say the unwillingness of people to take certain medications as prescribed has undermined effective treatment of conditions including high blood pressure, raising the cost of healthcare in the United States.

Continue reading “U.S. could bring more common drugs over the counter”

Quitting Smoking May Halve Risk of Oral Health Problems

TUESDAY, Feb. 7 (HealthDay News) — Adult smokers are twice as likely to develop oral health problems as those who have kicked the habit, researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found.

Compared to people who never smoked, current smokers are four times more likely to develop oral conditions, such as mouth cancers, gum disease and cavities.

The CDC investigators also found that smokers between the ages of 18 and 64 are nearly 1.5 times as likely as former smokers and more than twice as likely as people who never smoked to have three or more oral health problems.

Although current smokers were more likely to acknowledge the importance of oral health issues, they were less likely than former or never smokers to visit a dentist for an existing problem, the findings showed. The researchers reported that people who smoke are about twice as likely to have not been to the dentist in more than five years or not at all.

The main reason smokers said they avoided the dentist, the CDC authors noted, was that they couldn’t afford dental treatment. The research showed cost was the number one reason adults with an oral health problem did not visit the dentist within six months. More than half (56 percent) of current smokers either couldn’t afford treatment or didn’t have any insurance. The same was true for 36 percent of former smokers as well as 35 percent of people who never smoked.

The CDC report emphasized that research has long shown there is a link between tobacco use and oral disease. In addition, oral health problems could be a red flag for the development of many serious conditions, such as diabetes, HIV, heart disease or stroke, the authors noted.

Are Diet Soft Drinks Bad for You?

ScienceDaily (Jan. 31, 2012) — A new study finds a potential link between daily consumption of diet soft drinks and the risk of vascular events.

Individuals who drink diet soft drinks on a daily basis may be at increased risk of suffering vascular events such as stroke, heart attack, and vascular death. This is according to a new study by Hannah Gardener and her colleagues from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and at Columbia University Medical Center. However, in contrast, they found that regular soft drink consumption and a more moderate intake of diet soft drinks do not appear to be linked to a higher risk of vascular events. The research appears online in the Journal of General Internal Medicine published by Springer.

In the current climate of escalating obesity rates, artificially sweetened soft drinks are marketed as healthier alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages, due to their lack of calories. However, the long-term health consequences of drinking diet soft drinks remain unclear.

Gardener and team examined the relationship between both diet and regular soft drink consumption and risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (or heart attack), and vascular death. Data were analyzed from 2,564 participants in the NIH-funded Northern Manhattan Study, which was designed to determine stroke incidence, risk factors and prognosis in a multi-ethnic urban population. The researchers looked at how often individuals drank soft drinks — diet and regular — and the number of vascular events that occurred over a ten-year period.

They found that those who drank diet soft drinks daily were 43 percent more likely to have suffered a vascular event than those who drank none, after taking into account pre-existing vascular conditions such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and high blood pressure. Light diet soft drink users, i.e. those who drank between one a month and six a week, and those who chose regular soft drinks were not more likely to suffer vascular events.

Gardener concludes: “Our results suggest a potential association between daily diet soft drink consumption and vascular outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which soft drinks may affect vascular events are unclear. There is a need for further research before any conclusions can be drawn regarding the potential health consequences of diet soft drink consumption.”

Health Tip: Preparing for a Stress Test

To check heart function

(HealthDay News) — A cardiac stress test gives doctors an idea of how your heart functions at rest and when it’s under “stress” from activities such as treadmill exercise.

The U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute says you can prepare for the test by:

  • Dressing comfortably in workout clothes, including footwear designed for exercise.
  • Checking with your doctor to see if you need to avoid food and water before the test.
  • Checking with your doctor, if you’re diabetic, to see if you should adjust your medication before the test.
  • Asking your doctor if you need to avoid caffeinated beverages, certain foods or over-the-counter medications before the test.
  • Bringing any inhaler you use to the test and letting the doctor know about it.

Spending on depression up, quality of care lagging

(Reuters Health) – December 06, 2011 –  Spending on depression has gone up by nearly a third with no clear improvement in the quality of care, according to Medicaid claims data from Florida.

The uptick in spending was fueled mainly by prescriptions of psychiatric drugs, in particular antipsychotics, while the use of psychotherapy and hospitalizations dropped between 1996 and 2006.

“With the decline in use of hospitalization and antidepressants going generic, the cost of treating depression could have been expected to be falling over this period, but this didn’t happen,” said Thomas G. McGuire, a professor of health economics at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

“Patients were getting more drugs, mainly more antipsychotics, driving total treatment costs up not down,” he told Reuters Health in an email.

Quality of care measures included how much treatment patients’ received – both in person, from a doctor, and in sustained use of their prescribed medications.

Continue reading “Spending on depression up, quality of care lagging”

Antipsychotic drugs tied to diabetes risk in kids

(Reuters Health) – November 22, 2011 – The antipsychotic drugs that are increasingly being used to treat bipolar disorder, autism and other mental disorders in children may come with an increased risk of diabetes, a new study suggests.

Previous research has linked the so-called second-generation antipsychotics to an increased risk of diabetes in adults. And there’s been some evidence that the drugs can cause weight gain in children.

The new findings, published in the journal Pediatrics, add to concerns that the medications may ultimately lead to diabetes in some kids.

Using records from three U.S. health plans, researchers found that children and teens who started on an antipsychotic had four times the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes, versus kids not using any psychiatric medication.

They developed diabetes at a rate of just over three cases per 1,000 children per year. That compared with just under 0.8 cases per 1,000 among medication-free kids.

Second-generation antipsychotics include drugs such as Risperdal, known generically as risperidone, Zyprexa (olanzapine), Seroquel (quetiapine) and Abilify (aripiprazole).

Continue reading “Antipsychotic drugs tied to diabetes risk in kids”

Early sexual abuse increases heart risks

(Reuters) – November 13, 2011 – Women who were repeatedly sexually abused as girls have a 62 percent higher risk of heart problems later in life compared with women who were not abused, U.S. researchers said on Sunday.

The findings, presented at the American Heart Association meeting in Orlando, Florida, underscored the lasting physical effects of early sexual abuse.

Much of the increased risk was related to coping strategies among abuse survivors such as overeating, alcohol use and smoking.

“The single biggest factor explaining the link between severe child abuse and adult cardiovascular disease was the tendency of abused girls to have gained more weight throughout adolescence and into adulthood,” Janet Rich-Edwards of Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, who led the study, said in a statement.

Continue reading “Early sexual abuse increases heart risks”

Eli Lilly faces tough times with patent losses

(Reuters) – November 13, 2011Eli Lilly and Co has hit a tough spot with the pharmaceutical company’s top treatment now facing competition from cheaper generic brands and the looming loss of patent protection on other drugs.

“It may be one of our most challenging periods in our history because, as the way fate would have it, we lose patent protection on a number of products between now and 2014,” Lilly’s Chief Executive John Lechleiter told Reuters in an interview on the sidelines of an Asia-Pacific summit.

Lilly’s best selling product, its $4.5 billion a year Zyprexa schizophrenia treatment, began facing cheaper generics in the United States a few weeks ago and the company will lose protection for antidepressant Cymbalta in 2013 and its Evista osteoporosis drug the year after.

Continue reading “Eli Lilly faces tough times with patent losses”

U.S. advisers urge FDA to address antipsychotics in kids

(Reuters) – Sept. 22, 2011 – U.S. pediatric health advisers on Thursday urged drug regulators to continue studying weight gain and other side-effects of antipsychotic drugs as they are increasingly taken by children.

Significant numbers of U.S. children are receiving drugs to tame aggression, attention deficit disorder and other mental problems, even though there is little conclusive data to show exactly how the medications work or whether they damage kids’ health.

The pediatric advisory panel on Thursday listened to preliminary results of a study sponsored in part by the FDA that, inconclusively still, compared whether some antipsychotic drugs put children at a higher risk of developing diabetes than others.

Similar to the recommendations the panel has made in previous years, it voted 16-1 to support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration‘s routine safety monitoring of the new generation of antipsychotics.

Continue reading “U.S. advisers urge FDA to address antipsychotics in kids”

Depression Linked to Increased Risk of Stroke in Women

ScienceDaily (Aug. 12, 2011) — Depressed women may face an increased risk of stroke, according to new research reported in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association.

In six years of follow-up of women in the Nurses’ Health Study, researchers found that a history of depression was associated with a 29 percent increased risk of total stroke — even after considering other stroke risk factors. Women who used anti-depressant medication — particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors — had a 39 percent increased risk of stroke. Examples of these drugs are Prozac, Zoloft, and Celexa.

Anti-depressant medication use may be an indicator of depression severity, said Kathryn Rexrode, M.D., the study’s senior author and Associate Physician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Mass. “I don’t think the medications themselves are the primary cause of the risk. This study does not suggest that people should stop their medications to reduce the risk of stroke.”

Continue reading “Depression Linked to Increased Risk of Stroke in Women”

Childhood Depression, Anxiety Tied to Pain in Adulthood

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) — Children who experience abuse or other adversities and develop mental health disorders are at increased risk for chronic physical problems when they’re adults, according to a new study.

Researchers examined data from people in 10 countries included in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative. The team looked at anxiety disorders and depression in children and at the following childhood adversities: abuse, neglect, loss of a parent through death or other causes, divorce, parental substance abuse, parental criminal behavior, family violence and being poor.

Both anxiety and depression in childhood were associated with three chronic pain conditions in adulthood: osteoarthritis, chronic spinal pain (back or neck), and frequent or severe headache.

Physical abuse in childhood was associated with a number of chronic diseases in adulthood: heart disease, asthma, diabetes, osteoarthritis, chronic spinal pain and headache.

The greater the number of childhood adversities, the higher the risk of physical health problems in adulthood, the investigators found.

“These results are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood adversities and early-onset mental disorders have independent, broad-spectrum effects that increase the risk of diverse chronic physical conditions in later life,” concluded Kate M. Scott, of the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, and colleagues.

Chronic pain costs U.S. up to $635 billion a year

(Reuters) June 29, 2011 – Addressing chronic pain, a hard-to-treat yet highly common condition, costs the United States as much as $635 billion a year and requires a much more comprehensive strategy for curbing lost productivity and healthcare expenses, according to a new government report.

At least 116 million U.S. adults — or about four in 10 — suffer from chronic pain every year, leading to extra sick days, lost wages and productivity, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) said on Wednesday.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts more than several months. It remains hard for doctors to diagnose, is often self-treated by patients and commonly perceived as less than a legitimate condition.

“Many health care professionals are not adequately prepared to provide the full range of pain care or to guide patients in self-managing chronic pain,” IOM researchers wrote in the report mandated by Congress through the 2010 U.S. healthcare overhaul.

Continue reading “Chronic pain costs U.S. up to $635 billion a year”

Smokers show higher risk of leg artery disease

(Reuters Health) – June 06, 2011Women who smoke are much more likely than non-smokers to develop clogged arteries in the legs — but quitting can lower those odds, according to a study published Monday.

The study, reported in the Annals of Internal Medicine, found that female smokers were up to 17 times more likely than non-smokers to develop peripheral artery disease (PAD).

About 8 million Americans have PAD, which usually arises when atherosclerosis, a hardening and narrowing of the arteries, restricts blood flow to the legs. The main symptom is leg pain or cramps during normal activities, like walking, though not everyone with the condition has symptoms.

People with PAD often have widespread atherosclerosis, including coronary heart disease — where arteries feeding the heart become narrowed and stiff. For some, leg pain is the first symptom of wider problems.

Continue reading “Smokers show higher risk of leg artery disease”

Depression Associated With Poor Medication Adherence in Patients With Chronic Illnesses

ScienceDaily (May 10, 2011) — People who are depressed are less likely to adhere to medications for their chronic health problems than patients who are not depressed, putting them at increased risk of poor health, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

Researchers found that depressed patients across a wide array of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease had 76 percent greater odds of being non-adherent with their medications compared to patients who were not depressed. The findings were published online by the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

The study is the largest systematic review to date to look at the role that depression plays in medication adherence among patients in the United States.

Continue reading “Depression Associated With Poor Medication Adherence in Patients With Chronic Illnesses”

Antidepressants Work Overall, But Some Symptoms May Persist

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News)Antidepressants may not improve all symptoms of depression, according to a new study.

Researchers analyzed data from a U.S. National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored study of depression treatment, which involved more than 4,000 people with major depression around the country and is the largest study on depression treatment to date.

While antidepressant medications worked in general, all patients taking them reported three to 13 residual symptoms, and 75 percent reported five or more residual symptoms.

These symptoms included insomnia that occurs in the middle of the night (79 percent); sadness (nearly 71 percent), and problems with concentration and decision-making (nearly 70 percent), said the researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas.

“Widely used antidepressant medications, while working overall, missed these symptoms. If patients have persistent residual symptoms, these individuals have a high probability of incomplete recovery,” lead author Dr. Shawn McClintock, an assistant professor of psychiatry, said in a medical center news release.

However, suicidal thoughts discontinued in nearly all cases, the release said.

McClintock said it will be important to develop antidepressants that decrease the other depressive symptoms, and to explore the link between depression and concentration.

The study appears in the April issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.

Depression, which affects about 19 million adults in the United States a year, can increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, asthma and obesity.

Health Tip: Take Control of Your Diabetes

Suggestions for how to begin

URL of this page:*this news item will not be available after 05/19/2011)

By Diana Kohnle

(HealthDay News) — Keeping your blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible can help prevent complications of diabetes.

But how do you get started?

The American Diabetes Association offers these suggestions:

  • Make changes gradually, rather than trying to do everything at once. Start with a single change, such as checking your blood sugar more often.
  • Take an honest look at how you’re coping with being diabetic, and deal with any issues such as anger or depression.
  • Be realistic about what you can accomplish, and understand that you can’t always have perfect blood sugar. With practice, you can learn to administer the right insulin dose for different situations.
  • If the demands of the disease get overwhelming, allow yourself a small break from the new routine, then start again as quickly as possible.
Copyright (c) 2011 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Gastric bypass better than Lap-Band

(Reuters) – February 22, 2011 –  A study of the two most popular weight-loss surgeries found obese diabetics who had gastric bypass surgery lost 64 percent of their excess weight after a year, compared with 36 percent in those treated with Allergan Inc’s Lap-Band device, researchers said on Monday.

Complication rates were about the same with both procedures.

“It’s a dramatic difference,” said Dr. Guilherme Campos of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine in Madison, and formerly of the University of California, San Francisco, whose study appears in the Archives of Surgery.

Weight loss surgery is becoming increasingly popular as obese people struggle to lose weight and avoid the health complications that accompany the extra pounds — including diabetes, heart disease, joint pain and some cancers.

Continue reading “Gastric bypass better than Lap-Band”

In Women, Diabetes Plus Depression a Deadly Combo

Depression may hinder disease management, researchers say

MONDAY, Jan. 3 (HealthDay News) — Women suffering from both diabetes and depression have a greater risk of dying, especially from heart disease, a new study suggests.

In fact, women with both conditions have a twofold increased risk of death, researchers say.

“People with both conditions are at very high risk of death,” said lead researcher Dr. Frank B. Hu, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. “Those are double whammies.”

When people are afflicted by both diseases, these conditions can lead to a “vicious cycle,” Hu said. “People with diabetes are more likely to be depressed, because they are under long-term psychosocial stress, which is associated with diabetes complications.”

People with diabetes who are depressed are less likely to take care of themselves and effectively manage their diabetes, he added. “That can lead to complications, which increase the risk of mortality.”

Continue reading “In Women, Diabetes Plus Depression a Deadly Combo”